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Oil & Natural Gas Supply


ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY (eor)

The past and ongoing research into enhanced oil recovery (EOR) can be roughly divided into four general areas:

—Gas injection, including CO2, N2, NGL, flue

—Chemical, including
surfactant, surfactant with polymer, surfactant with foam

—Thermal, including convention steam, steam assisted gravity drainage, cyclic injection, and in-situ combustion

—Conformance and related| issues. 

Each area has its own history, potential, technology, opportunities and obstacles. The obstacles can be categorized as technical, economic, and legal/regulatory. Each area is needed to maximize the production potential of the domestic fields. The “prize” is quite large, however. According to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 175 billion barrels have been produced in the U.S. (excluding the deep and ultra-deep water Gulf of Mexico. However, from those same fields 400 billion barrels are “stranded” after traditional primary and secondary oil recovery. This compares to an estimated 21 billion barrels of proven reserves, so the opportunities are enormous.
 


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Enhanced Oil Recovery White Paper

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Legislation to Encourage EOR in Michigan

Recently "Michigan Lt. Governor Brian Calley signed legislation that provides incentives for an oil recovery method allowing increased oil and natural gas production from existing wells while sequestering CO2 deep underground." An industry report from Bellona Europa on April 15 discusses the positive impact and future developments that will result from this legislation. The bill will change the severance tax rate for EOR activities in Michigan reducing it to 4% instead of the 6.6% for oil and 5% for natural case under the Michigan's Severance Tax Act. Michigan has a large number of mature and depleted oil and natural gas wells and the reduced severance tax will make CO2 EOR more economic. The bill also addressed the "environmental benefit of permanently trapping CO2 underground." Three additional bills were signed that will encourage EOR development in Michigan, "HB 5254, HB 5255, and HB 5274 will provide for the exercise of eminent domain when laying pipelines to transport CO2.

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